Have you ever speculated how people can develop immunity against specific diseases? Well. Yes, it is an interesting mechanism, and to answer this critical question, you need to focus on various critical medical and immunological research activities. The generation of antibodies is all due to cells of the adaptive immune system. Humans’ immune system is highly intuitive because it targets exact pathogens and can easily store a “memory” of that pathogen for numerous years. While the inborn immune system is very fast to react, the adaptive immune system takes time to mount this particular attack, i.e. numerous days or weeks.
As we know, several cells take action to defeat a pathogen once it has been identified in the body. It is significant to note that the adaptive immune response can only be mobilized when activated by cells from the innate immune system. It generally occurs when the inborn immune response is not adequate to fight off an infection.
Overall, it is one of the most critical jobs of the Modelling Immune Response to distinguish self from non-self. Any pathogen that is detected as non-self is called an antigen. Not all antigens are harmful, such as those from food elements. And numerous macromolecules are considered self, including identifying molecules on the body’s cells and helpful bacteria. Importantly, when the body has trouble differentiating self from the non-self-autoimmune disorders occur. Usually, T cells detect this unique antigen/using specific receptors called T Cell Receptors (TCRs). The T helper cells act as vital mediators to stimulate other cells, including cytotoxic T cells and B cells.
In contrast, the Cytotoxic T cells kill the virally infected cells. Both cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells release cytokines when triggered. These extracellular cytokine signals can recruit and cue the explosion of other lymphocytes to boost the immune response.
Antibodies, or immunoglobulin’s, are large Y-shaped glycoproteins that bind to the pathogen’s surface receptors that may be essential for it to attack cells. Once an infection has raised, the T and B cells recognize a particular antigen and are saved by the memory cells. It allows the immune system to react faster and with more force than with the main encounter.
The continuous research on various aspects of immunoo0gy has indicated that modulating the function could be valuable for managing autoimmune diseases.
T and B cells’ development’s intricate nature leads to the specific receptors and activates numerous signalling cascades in each cell. In the following blogs in this series, we will dive into T cell assays and learn about how it helps the drug development companies in the research and can detect and identify specific immune responses.
Immune System And Assays
Everything You Need To Know About Cytokine Release Syndrome
Mechanism: Adaptive Immune System
How Could Immunity Against SARS-Cov-2 Last Up To More Than Six Months?
Things you need to know about Immune checkpoint functional assays